Anesthesia is a temporary reduction in the sensitivity of the body or its parts; it may be accompanied by a temporary cessation of perception (unconscious state).
Types of anesthesia used in clinic of plastic surgery include general anesthesia (narcosis), local anesthesia (analgesia of the separate body portion on which the manipulation is carried out) or conduction anesthesia (reversible blocking of nerve trunks that perceive pain to a distant part of the body).
The choice of anesthetic technique often depends on the extent of surgical intervention, psycho-emotional status of the patient and the desires of the surgeon and the patient. Usually, the surgeon and the patient define the method of anesthesia together.
General anesthesia (narcosis) is a method of anesthesia that is aimed at temporary depression of the central nervous system, loss of consciousness and the suppression of pain sensitivity. The main objective of anesthesia is to ensure a comfortable stay of the patient during surgery. Mainly, the narcosis is the choice priority, as it eliminates the emotional stress and anxiety during the surgery. Also, general anesthesia (narcosis) has a number of features in preparation for it. It is important to remember and know that the patient should not eat or drink for 6 hours before the operation on the day of general anesthesia. It is necessary to stop taking the drugs that reduce blood pressure on the day of narcosis implementation as well (for patients who are taking drugs systemically to treat hypertension). Prior to general anesthesia, it is necessary to clarify (not to cancel, but to clarify) the information regarding hormonal drugs (contraceptives or drugs for the treatment of thyroid gland). It is also necessary to clarify with a physician and eliminate taking medications containing aspirin (cardiomagnil, magnikor) for 2 weeks prior to surgery. It is necessary to tell your doctor about the presence of removable structures in the mouth, difficulties in opening of the mouth and tilting of the head if any.
General anesthesia (narcosis) is the method of anesthesia choice during the following operations: rhinoplasty, facelifting, augmentation mammoplasty, reduction mammoplasty, liposuction of 6 zones and more, cruroplasty, buttocks augmentation and otoplasty for children from 7 to 13 years.
There is the mandatory condition - after general anesthesia (narcosis), the patient should be in the clinic under supervision during the day.
Local anesthesia is widely used in plastic surgery, because it does not require prolonged stay in the hospital, wide preoperative examination and it is included in the cost of operation. Local anesthesia reduces tissue sensitivity (analgizes) in the area of manipulation; it does not affect the patient's consciousness. It means that the patient feels no pain during surgery, and is in full contact with the surgical team. Most often, a local anesthesia is used for ambulatory operations (the patient can go home on the day of surgery). Local anesthesia is the method of choice for the following operations: plasty of upper and lower eyelids, S-lifting, plasty of forehead, lipofilling, otoplasty for patients from 13 years, plasty of nose tip, removing of Bichat cells.
In case of local anesthesia, it is not necessary to cancel the preparations that a person uses for a systemic treatment of chronic diseases (except for aspirin-containing substances). You need to perform a test on the tolerance of the local anesthetic before performing the local anesthesia.
Conduction anesthesia is a modification of a local anesthesia. It may be applicable in operations where local administration of a local anesthetic is undesirable. That includes all types of cheiloplasty operations (Bulhorn, VY plasty of upper and lower lips, mentoplasty, all types of plasty on the fingers). Conduction anesthesia involves temporarily blocking of sensitive nerve trunks in the places of their output, and thus eliminating the pain. The main essence of conduction anesthesia is low quantity of anesthetic agent and absence of tissue deformations in the area of operation.
Anesthesia method is selected for each patient individually depending on the extent of the procedure, physical health, age, the patient's wishes and status.